Interactions of Vitamin E with medicines

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with several forms, but alpha-tocopherol is the only one used by the human body. Its main role is to act as an antioxidant, scavenging loose electrons—so-called “free radicals”—that can damage cells. [1] It also enhances immune function and prevents clots from forming in heart arteries. Antioxidant vitamins, including vitamin E, came to public attention in the 1980s when scientists began to understand that free radical damage was involved in the early stages of artery-clogging atherosclerosis, and might also contribute to cancer, vision loss, and a host of other chronic conditions. Vitamin E has the ability to protect cells from free radical damage as well as stop the production of free radical cells entirely. However, conflicting study results have dimmed some of the promise of using high dose vitamin E to prevent chronic diseases. Interactions of Vitamin E with medicines are mentioned below.

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination!

  • Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) interacts with VITAMIN ETaking large amounts of vitamin E along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase how much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) the body absorbs. By increasing how much cyclosporine the body absorbs, vitamin E might increase the effects and side effects of cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune).
  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with VITAMIN ESome medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Vitamin E might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking vitamin E along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of some medications. Before taking vitamin E talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
  • Medications for cancer (Chemotherapy) interacts with VITAMIN EVitamin E is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if the interaction occurs.
  • Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with VITAMIN EVitamin E might slow blood clotting. Taking vitamin E along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
  • Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins) interacts with VITAMIN ETaking vitamin E, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and selenium together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. It is not known if taking vitamin E alone decreases the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol.Some medications used for lowering cholesterol include atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), and pravastatin (Pravachol).
  • Niacin interacts with VITAMIN ETaking vitamin E along with beta-carotene, vitamin C, and selenium might decrease some of the beneficial effects of niacin. Niacin can increase the good cholesterol. Taking vitamin E along with these other vitamins might decrease the good cholesterol.
  • Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with VITAMIN EWarfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Vitamin E can also slow blood clotting. Taking vitamin E along with warfarin (Coumadin) can increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
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Side effects of taking too much Vitamin E

VITAMIN E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with several forms, but alpha-tocopherol is the only one used by the human body. Its main role is to act as an antioxidant, scavenging loose electrons—so-called “free radicals”—that can damage cells. [1] It also enhances immune function and prevents clots from forming in heart arteries. But it causes, Side effects when taking too much Vitamin E.

OTHER NAME(S): 

Acétate d’Alpha Tocophérol, Acétate d’Alpha Tocophéryl, Acétate de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de DL-Alpha-Tocophéryl.

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth

Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE for most healthy people when taken by mouth. Most people do not experience any side effects when taking the recommended daily dose, which is 22.4 IU.

Vitamin E is POSSIBLY UNSAFE if taken by mouth in high doses. If you have a condition such as heart disease or diabetes, do not take doses of 400 IU/day or more. Some research suggests that high doses might increase the chance of death and possibly cause other serious side effects. The higher the dose, the greater the risk of serious side effects.

There is some concern that vitamin E might increase the chance of having a serious stroke called hemorrhagic stroke, which is bleeding into the brain. Some research shows that taking vitamin E in doses of 300-800 IU each day might increase the chance of this kind of stroke by 22%. However, in contrast, vitamin E might decrease the chance of having a less severe stroke called an ischemic stroke.

There is contradictory information about the effect of vitamin E on the chance of developing prostate cancer. Some research suggests that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate vitamin E supplement might actually increase the chance of developing prostate cancer in some men.

High doses can also cause nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fatigue, weakness, headache, blurred vision, rash, and bruising and bleeding.

When applied to the skin

Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE for most healthy people when applied to the skin. While rare, applying vitamin E to the skin has caused itching and swelling in some people.

When inhaled

Vitamin E is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when inhaled. Use of e-cigarettes and other vaping products containing vitamin E as vitamin E acetate has been linked to serious lung injury in some people.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy

When used in the recommended daily amount, vitamin E is POSSIBLY SAFE for pregnant women. There has been some concern that taking vitamin E supplements might be harmful to the fetus when taken in early pregnancy. However, it is too soon to know if this is an important concern. Until more is known, do not take vitamin E supplements during early pregnancy without talking with your healthcare provider.

Breast-feeding

Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in recommended daily amounts during breast-feeding.

Infants and children

Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. The maximum amounts of vitamin E that are considered safe for children are based on age. Less than 298 IU daily is safe for children 1 to 3 years old. Less than 447 IU daily is safe for children 4 to 8 years old. Less than 894 IU daily is safe for children 9 to 13 years old. Less than 1192 IU daily is safe for children ages 14 to 18 years old. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when given intravenously (by IV) to premature infants in high doses.

A procedure to open a blocked or narrowed blood vessel (angioplasty)

Avoid taking supplements containing vitamin E or other antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C) immediately before and following angioplasty without the supervision of a health care professional. These vitamins seem to interfere with proper healing.

Bleeding disorders

Vitamin E might make bleeding disorders worse. If you have a bleeding disorder, avoid taking vitamin E supplements.

Diabetes

Vitamin E might increase the risk for heart failure in people with diabetes. People with diabetes should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Head and neck cancer

Do not take vitamin E supplements in doses of 400 IU/day or more. Vitamin E might increase the chance that cancer will return.

Liver disease

Vitamin E taken for 2 years or more can worsen insulin resistance when given with a liver disease called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Heart attack

Vitamin E might increase the risk for death in people with a history of heart attack. People with a history of heart attack should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis)

Exercise is sometimes used by people with osteoporosis to improve bone strength. Exercising and taking high doses of vitamin E and vitamin C might lessen the benefits of exercise on bone strength.

Prostate cancer

There is concern that taking vitamin E might increase the chance of developing prostate cancer. The effect of vitamin E in men who currently have prostate cancer isn’t clear. However, in theory, taking vitamin E supplements might worsen prostate cancer in men who already have it.

An inherited eye condition that causes poor night vision and loss of side vision (retinitis pigmentosa)

All-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) 400 IU seems to speed vision loss in people with retinitis pigmentosa. However, much lower amounts (3 IU) do not seem to produce this effect. If you have this condition, it is best to avoid vitamin E supplements.

Stroke

Vitamin E might increase the risk for death in people with a history of stroke. People with a history of stroke should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Surgery

Vitamin E might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using vitamin E at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Low levels of vitamin K (vitamin K deficiency)

Vitamin E might worsen clotting problems in people whose levels of vitamin K are too low.

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Health benefits of vitamin E

Vitamin E is a vitamin that dissolves in fat. It is found in many foods including vegetable oils, cereals, meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and wheat germ oil. It is also available as a supplement. Health benefits of vitamin E are mentioned below.

Vitamin E is used for treating vitamin E deficiency, which is rare, but can occur in people with certain genetic disorders and in very low-weight premature infants. Vitamin E is also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.

The American Heart Association recommends obtaining antioxidants, including vitamin E, by eating a well-balanced diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rather than from supplements until more is known about the risks and benefits of taking supplements.

A type of vitamin E called vitamin E acetate is an ingredient in some vaping products. Using vaping products containing vitamin E acetate has been linked to serious lung injury.

The Benefits of Vitamin E

Antioxidant

Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It may help protect your cells from damage. This essential nutrient occurs naturally in many foods. It’s also available as a dietary supplement. Sometimes, it’s in processed foods. Vitamin E is fat-soluble. This means your body stores and uses it as needed.

The term “vitamin E” describes eight different compounds. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active one in humans.

Longer cell life

You’ve probably seen rust on your bike or car. A similar process of oxidation and accelerated aging takes place in your body when cells are exposed to molecules called free radicals. Free radicals weaken and break down healthy cells. These molecules may also contribute to heart disease and cancer.

Free radicals form as a result of normal body processes. They cause damage that shortens the life of your cells. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that may help reduce free radical damage and slow the aging process of your cells, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Researchers have investigated the use of vitamin E as treatment for a variety of degenerative diseases, including:

  • hardening of the arteries
  • high blood pressure
  • heart disease
  • cancer

Extra protection

Vitamin E may help people with higher environmental or lifestyle risk factors. Free radicals are increased by:

  • cigarette smoking
  • exposure to air pollution
  • high exposure to ultraviolet rays from sunlight


Vitamin E may help repair damaged cells.

It’s difficult to consume too much vitamin E in your regular diet. It’s neither risky nor harmful to obtain vitamin E from food sources.

Effective for

  • An inherited condition that affects motor control (ataxia with vitamin E deficiency or AVED). The genetic movement disorder called ataxia causes severe vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E supplements are used as part of the treatment for ataxia.
  • Vitamin E deficiency. Taking vitamin E by mouth is effective for preventing and treating vitamin E deficiency.

Possibly Effective for

  • Alzheimer disease. Some early research suggests that dietary intake of vitamin E is linked to a lower chance of developing Alzheimer disease. But not all research agrees. Taking vitamin E supplements doesn’t seem to prevent Alzheimer disease from developing. In people who already have Alzheimer disease, taking vitamin E along with some anti-Alzheimer medicines might slow down the worsening of memory loss. Vitamin E might also delay the loss of independence and the need for caregiver assistance in people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease.
  • Low levels of red blood cells in people with long-term illness (anemia of chronic disease). Some research shows that that taking vitamin E improves the response to the drug erythropoietin, which affects red blood cell production, in adults and children on hemodialysis.
  • A blood disorder that reduces levels of protein in the blood called hemoglobin (beta-thalassemia). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to benefit children with the blood disorder called beta-thalassemia and vitamin E deficiency.
  • Leakage of intravenous (IV) drug from the vein into the surrounding skin and tissue (extravasation). Applying vitamin E to the skin together with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) seems to be effective for treating leakage of chemotherapy into surrounding tissues.
  • Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea). Taking vitamin E for 2 days before bleeding and for 3 days after bleeding starts seems to decrease pain and reduce menstrual blood loss. Taking vitamin E with fish oil might provide even more pain relief than taking vitamin E alone.
  • Scarring or hardening of blood vessels in the kidney (glomerulosclerosis). There is some evidence that taking vitamin E by mouth might improve kidney function in children with glomerulosclerosis.
  • An inherited disorder that causes red blood cells to break down in response to stress (G6PD deficiency). Some research shows that taking vitamin E by mouth, alone or together with selenium, might benefit people with an inherited disorder called G6PD deficiency.
  • A type of non-cancerous skin sore (granuloma annulare). Applying vitamin E to the skin seems to clear up skin sores called granuloma annulare.
  • An inherited brain disorder that affects movements, emotions, and thinking (Huntington disease). Natural vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) can improve symptoms in people with early Huntington disease. However, it doesn’t seem to help people with more advanced disease.
  • Bleeding within the skull (intracranial hemorrhage). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to be effective for treating bleeding in the skull in premature infants.
  • Bleeding into or around the fluid-filled areas (ventricles) of the brain (intraventricular hemorrhage). Some research shows that giving vitamin E by mouth to premature infants can reduce the risk for bleeding into the brain. But giving high doses of vitamin E might increase the risk for a serious blood infection (sepsis) in these infants.
  • Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility). Taking vitamin E by mouth improves pregnancy rates for men with fertility problems. But taking high doses of vitamin E together with vitamin C doesn’t seem to provide the same benefits.
  • Reduced benefit of nitrate therapy that happens when nitrates are used all day (nitrate tolerance). There is some evidence that taking vitamin E daily can help prevent nitrate tolerance.
  • Swelling (inflammation) and build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH). Taking vitamin E daily seems to improve inflammation and liver markers of this form of liver disease in adults and children.
  • Parkinson disease. People who get more vitamin E in their diet might have a lower risk of Parkinson disease. Taking supplements containing vitamin E doesn’t seem to benefit people already diagnosed with Parkinson disease.
  • Recovery from laser eye surgery (photoreactive keratectomy). Taking high doses of vitamin A along with vitamin E (alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate) daily seems to improve healing and vision in people undergoing laser eye surgery.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to reduce anxiety, craving, and depression in some women with PMS.
  • Physical performance in elderly adults. Research suggests that increasing vitamin E intake in the diet is linked with improved physical performance and muscle strength in older people.
  • Scarring of tissue caused by radiation therapy. Taking vitamin E by mouth with the drug pentoxifylline seems to treat scarring caused by radiation. However, taking vitamin E alone doesn’t seem to be effective.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Vitamin E taken along with standard treatment is better than standard treatment alone for reducing pain in people with RA. However, this combination doesn’t reduce swelling.
  • Sunburn. Taking high doses of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth together with vitamin C protects against skin inflammation after exposure to UV radiation. However, vitamin E alone doesn’t provide the same benefit. Applying vitamin E to the skin, together with vitamin C and melatonin, provides some protection when used before UV exposure.
  • A movement disorder often caused by antipsychotic drugs (tardive dyskinesia). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to improve symptoms associated with the movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. However, some other research suggests that it doesn’t improve symptoms, but may prevent symptoms from worsening.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the eye (uveitis). Taking vitamin E with vitamin C by mouth seems to improve vision, but doesn’t reduce swelling, in people with uveitis.
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Causes and Prevention of Vitamin B12 Deficiency


Causes and Prevention of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

The body needs vitamin B-12 for a range of bodily functions, which include making red blood cells. Being deficient in vitamin B-12 causes physical and psychological symptoms, including nerve problems, fatigue, and difficulty thinking.

Most vitamin B-12 deficiency symptoms occur due to a lack of red blood cells, which means that the body does not get enough oxygen. The body’s oxygen supply is crucial for many aspects of health.

As with other nutrients, the best way for most people to get vitamin B-12 is in the diet. If a person cannot get enough from their usual diet, fortified foods and other dietary supplements may help.

In most cases, doctors can treat vitamin B-12 deficiency. However, people with long-term deficiency may have long-lasting effects, such as nerve damage.

Spotting the signs of vitamin B-12 deficiency early on and getting the right treatment can improve a person’s outlook.

Causes

Even if a person gets enough vitamin B-12 in their diet, some underlying health conditions can affect the absorption of vitamin B-12 in the gut.

These conditions include:

The following factors make a person more likely to have a vitamin B-12 deficiency:

  • being older, because a person becomes less able to absorb B-12 as they age
  • eating a vegetarian or vegan diet
  • taking anti-acid medication for an extended period
  • weight loss surgery or other stomach surgery, which can affect how the digestive system absorbs vitamin B-12

Treatment and prevention

Most people can get enough vitamin B-12 from dietary sources. For those who cannot, a doctor may prescribe or recommend B-12 supplements. People can also get B-12 supplements from drug stores or choose between brands online.

Most multivitamins contain vitamin B-12. People can take B-12 supplements in the form of oral tablets, sublingual tablets that dissolve under the tongue, or injections. A doctor can provide advice on the correct dosage of this vitamin.

People who have trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 may need shots of the vitamin to treat their deficiency.

A doctor can advise people on the best way to prevent vitamin B-12 deficiency, depending on their dietary choices and health.

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Symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency

What are the symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

Vitamin B-12 is an essential nutrient that keeps the body functioning properly. Symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency include fatigue, low mood, and nerve problems.

The human body does not create vitamin B-12, so people must get this nutrient from their diet. It is crucial for making DNA and red blood cells, and it helps support the nervous system.

Vitamin B-12 plays a vital role in the production of blood cells.

Many of the symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency arise because it causes a lack of healthy blood cells. The body needs plenty of these cells to get oxygen around the body and keep the organs in good health.

A vitamin B-12 deficiency can lead to both physical and psychological problems. In this article, we explore 11 symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency and explain why they occur.

What to know about vitamin B-12 deficiency

Vitamin B-12 deficiency may affect between 1.5 and 15.0 percent of people.

This deficiency can cause a wide range of symptoms that affect a person’s mental and physical health.

It is important to consume foods that contain vitamin B-12 on a regular basis. Adults need around 2.4 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin B-12 each day.

Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is present in animal-based foods, such as:

  • red meat
  • poultry
  • eggs
  • dairy
  • fish

If a person does not eat animal products, they will need to add vegetarian and vegan sources of vitamin B-12 to their diet. These include fortified cereals, plant milks, bread, and nutritional yeast.

As vitamin B-12 deficiency shares many symptoms with other nutritional deficiencies and health conditions, it is possible that people may neither notice it nor get a diagnosis.

Being aware of all of the signs can help people identify the deficiency and seek treatment.

Below, we look at the symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency and their causes.

1. Tingling hands or feet

Vitamin B-12 deficiency may cause “pins and needles” in the hands or feet. This symptom occurs because the vitamin plays a crucial role in the nervous system, and its absence can cause people to develop nerve conduction problems or nerve damage.

In the nervous system, vitamin B-12 helps produce a substance called myelin. Myelin is a protective coating that shields the nerves and helps them transmit sensations.

People who are vitamin B-12 deficient may not produce enough myelin to coat their nerves. Without this coating, nerves can become damaged.

Problems are more common in the nerves in the hands and feet, which are called peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerve damage may lead to tingling in these parts of the body.

2. Trouble walking

Over time, peripheral nerve damage resulting from vitamin B-12 deficiency can lead to movement problems.

Numbness in the feet and limbs may make it hard for a person to walk without support. They may also experience muscle weakness and diminished reflexes.

3. Pale skin

Pale or yellow skin, called jaundice, may be a symptom of vitamin B-12 deficiency.

Jaundice develops when a person’s body is not able to produce enough red blood cells. Red blood cells circulating under the skin provide it with its normal color. Without enough of these cells, the skin may look pale.

Vitamin B-12 plays a role in the production of red blood cells. A vitamin B-12 deficiency can cause a lack of red blood cells, or megaloblastic anemia, which has an association with jaundice.

This type of anemia can also weaken the red blood cells, which the body then breaks down more quickly. When the liver breaks down red blood cells, it releases bilirubin. Bilirubin is a brownish substance that gives the skin the yellowish tone that is characteristic of jaundice.

4. Fatigue

Megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B-12 deficiency may lead to a person feeling fatigued.

Without enough red blood cells to carry oxygen around their body, a person can feel extremely tired.

5. Fast heart rate

A fast heart rate may be a symptom of vitamin B-12 deficiency.

The heart may start to beat faster to make up for the reduced number of red blood cells in the body.

Anemia puts pressure on the heart to push a higher volume of blood around the body and to do it more quickly. This response is the body’s way of trying to ensure that enough oxygen circulates through all of the body’s systems and reaches all the organs.

6. Shortness of breath

Anemia that results from vitamin B-12 deficiency may cause a person to feel a little short of breath. It is possible to link this to a lack of red blood cells and a fast heartbeat.

Anyone who is experiencing real difficulty breathing should see a doctor straight away.

7. Mouth pain

Vitamin B-12 affects oral health. As a result, being deficient in vitamin B-12 may cause the following mouth problems:

  • glossitis, which causes a swollen, smooth, red tongue
  • mouth ulcers
  • a burning sensation in the mouth

These symptoms occur because vitamin B-12 deficiency causes a reduction in red blood cell production, which results in less oxygen reaching the tongue.

8. Problems thinking or reasoning

Vitamin B-12 deficiency may cause problems with thinking, which doctors refer to as cognitive impairment. These issues include difficulty thinking or reasoning and memory loss.

One study even linked low vitamin B-12 levels to an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and Parkinson’s disease.

The reduced amount of oxygen reaching the brain might be to blame for the thinking and reasoning problems.

9. Irritability

Being deficient in vitamin B-12 can affect a person’s mood, potentially causing irritability or depression.

There is a need for more research into the link between vitamin B-12 and mental health. One theory is that vitamin B-12 helps break down a brain chemical called homocysteine. Having too much homocysteine in the brain may cause mental health problems.

10. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

Vitamin B-12 deficiency can affect the digestive tract.

A lack of red blood cells means that not enough oxygen reaches the gut. Insufficient oxygen here may lead to a person both feeling and being sick. It may also cause diarrhea.

11. Decreased appetite and weight loss

As a result of digestive problems, such as nausea, people with vitamin B-12 deficiency may lose their appetite. A decreased appetite can lead to weight loss in the long term.

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Top 10 foods rich in vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble compound with antioxidant properties. Getting enough vitamin E is essential for the immune system, blood vessel health, and keeping the skin youthful. Top 10 foods rich in vitamin E are mentioned below:

There are eight distinct forms of vitamin E, but researchers believe that only one type, alpha-tocopherol, helps meet human nutritional needs.

Plenty of foods contain vitamin E, which means many people get enough of the vitamin naturally through their diet.

Nuts, seeds, and some oils tend to contain the most vitamin E per serving. Some dark green vegetables, a few fruits, and some types of seafood also contain vitamin E.

Many manufacturers now fortify cereals and meal replacements with vitamin E.

In this article, learn about which foods are high in vitamin E, as well as the health benefits of this essential vitamin.

1. Sunflower seeds

Sunflower seeds make an excellent snack. People can also sprinkle them on yogurt, oatmeal, or salad. A 100-gram (g) serving of sunflower seeds contains 35.17 milligrams (mg) of vitamin E.

Sunflower seeds are packed with a variety of nutrients and can help a person get enough fiber to keep their digestive system healthy. A 100 g serving contains:

  • 8.6 g fiber
  • 20.78 g protein
  • 645 mg potassium
  • 325 mg magnesium
  • 5 mg zinc

2. Almonds

For every 100 g serving of almonds, there is 25.63 mg of vitamin E. People can snack on roasted almonds, add them to cereal and baked goods, or drink almond milk.

Almonds also contain:

  • 21.15 g protein
  • 12.5 g fiber
  • 733 mg potassium
  • 270 mg magnesium

3. Peanuts

Peanuts are a popular snack. There is 4.93 mg of vitamin E in a 100 g serving of dry-roasted peanuts.

People should be sure to buy plain, dry-roasted peanuts rather than those with extra salt and flavorings.

The same size serving also contains:

  • 24.35 g protein
  • 8.4 g fiber
  • 634 mg potassium
  • 14.355 mg niacin

4. Some oils

Some oils are very high in vitamin E, although aside from fat and calories, most contain little else in the way of nutrition.

A tablespoon of the following oils contains:

5. Avocados

Avocados are a versatile fruit that contain very little sugar and plenty of nutrients. In 100 g of avocado, there is 2.07 mg of vitamin E.

The same size serving also contains 10 mg of vitamin C, making it a healthful addition to many meals and snacks. Avocado also contains more potassium than bananas.

6. Spinach

A 100g serving of raw spinach contains 2.03 mg of vitamin E.

The same serving also contains:

  • 9377 international units (IU) vitamin A
  • 28.1 mg vitamin C
  • 2.2 g fiber
  • 558 mg potassium

7. Swiss chard

Swiss chard is a dark green leafy vegetable that contains 1.89 mg of vitamin E in a 100 g serving.

Like many leafy greens, Swiss chard contains a range of additional nutrients, including:

  • 6116 IU vitamin A
  • 81 mg magnesium
  • 30 mg vitamin C
  • 1.80 mg iron
  • 379 mg potassium
  • 1.6 g fiber

8. Butternut squash

Butternut squash is a tasty vegetable common in many fall and winter dishes. There is 1.29 mg of vitamin E in 100 g of baked butternut squash.

The same size serving also contains plenty of other vitamins and nutrients, including:

  • 11155 IU vitamin A
  • 15.1 mg vitamin C
  • 3.2 g fiber
  • 284 mg of potassium

9. Beet greens

While many people are familiar with the taste of beetroot, not everyone knows that it is possible to eat the “greens” or leaves. People can use beet greens in salads or sauté them in oil.

A 100 g serving of cooked beet greens contains 1.81 mg of vitamin E.

Beet greens contain many additional nutrients, including:

  • 7654 IU vitamin A
  • 24.9 mg vitamin C
  • 909 mg potassium
  • 2.9 g fiber
  • 1.90 mg iron
  • 114 mg calcium

10. Trout

A 100 g serving of trout contains 2.15 mg of vitamin E.

Trout is also high in healthful omega-3 fatty acids, and the same size serving contains 21.11 g of protein.

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Vitamin E Food Sources and Deficiency Symptoms

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with several forms, but alpha-tocopherol is the only one used by the human body. Its main role is to act as an antioxidant, scavenging loose electrons—so-called “free radicals”—that can damage cells. [1] It also enhances immune function and prevents clots from forming in heart arteries. Antioxidant vitamins, including vitamin E, came to public attention in the 1980s when scientists began to understand that free radical damage was involved in the early stages of artery-clogging atherosclerosis, and might also contribute to cancer, vision loss, and a host of other chronic conditions. Vitamin E has the ability to protect cells from free radical damage as well as stop the production of free radical cells entirely. However, conflicting study results have dimmed some of the promise of using high dose vitamin E to prevent chronic diseases. Vitamin E Food Sources and Deficiency Symptoms

Recommended Amounts

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin E for males and females ages 14 years and older is 15 mg daily (or 22 international units, IU), including women who are pregnant. Lactating women need slightly more at 19 mg (28 IU) daily.

Vitamin E and Health

Heart diseaseCancerAge-related vision diseasesCognitive function and neurodegenerative diseases

Food Sources

Vitamin E is found in plant-based oils, nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables.

  • Wheat germ oil
  • Sunflower, safflower, and soybean oil
  • Sunflower seeds
  • Almonds
  • Peanuts, peanut butter
  • Beet greens, collard greens, spinach
  • Pumpkin
  • Red bell pepper
  • Asparagus
  • Mango
  • Avocado

Signs of Deficiency

Because vitamin E is found in a variety of foods and supplements, a deficiency in the U.S. is rare. People who have digestive disorders or do not absorb fat properly (e.g., pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease) can develop a vitamin E deficiency. The following are common signs of a deficiency:

  • Retinopathy (damage to the retina of the eyes that can impair vision)
  • Peripheral neuropathy (damage to the peripheral nerves, usually in the hands or feet, causing weakness or pain)
  • Ataxia (loss of control of body movements)
  • Decreased immune function

Toxicity

There is no evidence of toxic effects from vitamin E found naturally in foods. Most adults who obtain more than the RDA of 22 IU daily are using multivitamins or separate vitamin E supplements that contain anywhere from 400-1000 IU daily. There have not been reports of harmful side effects of supplement use in healthy people. However, there is a risk of excess bleeding, particularly with doses greater than 1000 mg daily or if an individual is also using a blood thinning medication such as warfarin. For this reason, an upper limit for vitamin E has been set for adults 19 years and older of 1000 mg daily (1465 IU) of any form of tocopherol supplement. [1]

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Vitamin E: Functions and Recommendations

Vitamin E: Functions and Recommendations

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin.

Function

Vitamin E has the following functions:

  • It is an antioxidant. This means it protects body tissue from damage caused by substances called free radicals. Free radicals can harm cells, tissues, and organs. They are believed to play a role in certain conditions related to aging.
  • The body also needs vitamin E to help keep the immune system strong against viruses and bacteria. Vitamin E is also important in the formation of red blood cells. It helps the body use vitamin K. It also helps widen blood vessels and keep blood from clotting inside them.
  • Cells use vitamin E to interact with each other. It helps them carry out many important functions.

Whether vitamin E can prevent cancer, heart disease, dementia, liver disease, and stroke still requires further research.

Food Sources

The best way to get the daily requirement of vitamin E is by eating food sources. Vitamin E is found in the following foods:

  • Vegetable oils (such as wheat germ, sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils)
  • Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts/filberts)
  • Seeds (such as sunflower seeds)
  • Green leafy vegetables (such as spinach and broccoli)
  • Fortified breakfast cereals, fruit juices, margarine, and spreads.

Fortified means that vitamins have been added to the food. Check the Nutrition Fact Panel on the food label.

Products made from these foods, such as margarine, also contain vitamin E.

Side Effects

Eating vitamin E in foods is not risky or harmful. However, high doses of vitamin E supplements (alpha-tocopherol supplements) might increase the risk of bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).

High levels of vitamin E may also increase the risk for birth defects. However, it needs more research.

Low intake may lead to hemolytic anemia in premature babies.

Recommendations

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamins reflect how much of each vitamin most people should get each day.

  • The RDA for vitamins may be used as goals for each person.
  • How much of each vitamin you need depends on your age and gender.
  • Other factors, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, and illnesses may increase the amount you need.

The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine Recommended Intakes for individuals for vitamin E:

Infants (adequate intake of vitamin E)

  • 0 to 6 months: 4 mg/day
  • 7 to 12 months: 5 mg/day

Children

  • 1 to 3 years: 6 mg/day
  • 4 to 8 years: 7 mg/day
  • 9 to 13 years: 11 mg/day

Adolescents and adults

  • 14 and older: 15 mg/day
  • Pregnant teens and women: 15 mg/day
  • Breastfeeding teens and women: 19 mg/day

Ask your health care provider which amount is best for you.

The highest safe level of vitamin E supplements for adults is 1,500 IU/day for natural forms of vitamin E, and 1,000 IU/day for the man-made (synthetic) form.

Alternative Names

Alpha-tocopherol; Gamma-tocopherol

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